Liftlazy Whenevercast: Episode 1

The Whenevercast is my version of a podcast. A few things led to the selection of the name. For starters, I really wasn’t sure if anybody still used an iPod. There was also the need for a name that would stand out and wasn’t taken already. Thus, the idea of the audio show you can listen to whenever you want bequeathed Whenevercast.

Names aside, this ongoing audio series is geared towards the regular person. Not the pro athlete or bodybuilder or fitness model. I’ve noticed an acute lack of material on the internet for people of all ages who don’t have the time to spend doing two hour workouts, or may have an existing injury that prevents certain movements. You won’t hear a lot of fancy language, just a “Tell me what I need to know and shut up, Chris” tone to the Whenevercasts. It’s all by design to make it easier to understand the confusing parts of fitness. Currently scheduled for a bimonthly release, each episode will feature special guests of varying backgrounds to discuss fitness topics with me. And if listeners send in questions, we’ll answer some of those as well.

So here it is, episode 1 of the Liftlazy Whenevercast! The special guest this time is Mark Pryer, a strength and conditioning expert in the Dallas area. We discuss injury prevention, core conditioning, healthy eating during the holidays and how to ease into a workout regimen for the new year.

You can contact Mark via his Twitter #MarkPryer

Download mp3 here.

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BMI Tests For Pilots: Avoiding The Issue

The proposed addition of neck circumference and BMI testing to the airman’s medical exam is inaccurate, misguided and of limited usefulness. The impetus behind this screening is the recent spate of tired pilots making mistakes and even falling asleep while on duty. In one such incident it was later revealed that the captain had sleep apnea which was viewed as a probable cause for his falling asleep enroute (since sleep apnea is not contagious, the reason for the first officer also falling asleep at the same time was chalked up to fatigue). While this change to the medical exam affects all pilots, including those who fly privately, this piece will focus on air carrier pilots.

Aviation is under a constant media microscope and these incidents while statistically miniscule, nevertheless raise the suspicion of the public. Falling asleep at a job as hazardous as those that exist in aviation should not be tolerated, but using a questionable screening process should not be accepted in an attempt to create a solution to a condition that may or may not exist and most likely is not the primary cause of exhausted pilots. For the record, each year there are over 100,000 motor vehicle accidents that are attributed to drowsy driving. Despite the loss of 1,500 lives, so far no public safety department has mandated obesity or sleep apnea tests for motor vehicle drivers, even commercial operators.

Body Mass Index Accuracy

It has been proven that people with extremely high body fat percentages are susceptible to obstructive sleep apnea. It has also been proven that sleep apnea causes both hypersomnia and insomnia, impairs cognitive function and can lead to cardiac arrest in extreme cases. These facts are also not in question. What is troubling is the method being used to determine this risk factor in pilots, namely, the BMI rating.

BMI, or body mass index is a handy method for calculating a person’s mass to height ratio. As such, it is useful as a quick evaluation concerning obesity. The problem with BMI is that it is a very “dumb” equation; it does not know what it is measuring. A “smart” doctor, trainer, or clinician has to interpret the number and take into account other physiological factors (even the CDC states that BMI is not a diagnostic tool). Unfortunately, because BMI requires no specialized equipment or tactile measurements on the patient, it is widely used by people who have limited knowledge about the human body, obesity, bone density or muscle mass. This results in gross misinterpretations and misdiagnosis for people of various body types.

Another problem with BMI is that it leaves out critical factors such as age, gender, and body fat percentage. As people age, they naturally lose muscle mass unless steps are taken to preserve it (such as lifting weights). The loss of muscle mass, while detrimental, will show up as a reduction in BMI, leading the patient to think that they are getting healthier. Women on average have less muscle mass than men, resulting in more women being classified as healthy and more men as obese, even if the opposite is true. And most tellingly, if a person is 5’8” and 190lbs with 8% body fat, they will score the same BMI as someone who is 5’8”, 190lbs and 30% body fat (it is the same logic as saying that a Ford F-150 and a Ford Mustang will perform exactly the same since they have the same horsepower). One would think that scenarios such as these would be easily noticed and accounted for, however that does not appear to be the case in several well publicized instances.

In recent months, stories have come out where middle schools with good intentions unwittingly labeled some student athletes as “at risk” or obese based on a BMI calculation. The fact that nobody in charge of the program even understood how to deal with off-scale errors caused by a student having more muscle mass than their peers is distressing. Part of this rampant misinterpretation stems from our nation’s obsession with weight as the be-all-end-all indicator of a person’s health. Weight alone is a useless metric. It merely tells us how much of an effect gravity has on a given person. It does not tell us the distribution of body fat or muscle mass, which are the critical values that directly affect a person’s well-being. And as previously mentioned, simply possessing the stats of being 5’8” and 190 lbs only means that you are 5’8” tall and 190 lbs. Any other inferences must be determined by checking body composition.

As angry as the students and parents were at this mislabeling, imagine if your job relied on BMI numbers that may not have any basis in reality. It has been shown that it is very easy to make sweeping generalizations based on spurious data and then pass off any errors as anomalies. Will an airline ignore high BMI numbers in a visibly fit pilot, or will they tell them to atrophy away some muscle mass in order to lose weight? Alarms should be going off in the head of every pilot in America. If it can happen to children in school, it can and is about to happen to them as well.

Flight Fatigue

The cockpit of a modern jetliner can be a very sleepy place physiologically speaking. Noise fatigue from the slipstream roaring past the windows (a very effective white noise generator), reduced oxygen levels even with a pressurized cabin, and the inability to simply stand up and walk around are just some of the fatigue inducing factors present. Any one of these factors by themselves are hazardous enough to have volumes written about their attendant risks. Somehow, they are not even mentioned as a possible factor in pilot fatigue in this new screening process.

In fact it is entirely possible that it is an attempt to divert attention away from the fact that the new rest rules enacted by the Federal Aviation Administration have not fully accomplished their goal of eliminating pilot fatigue. This is only because airlines are not required to fully implement these rules until the end of 2013. Federal regulations now allow air carrier pilots a maximum of 9 hours of flight time and at least 10 hours of rest per each 24 hour period. To those who don’t fly for a living, a 9 hour workday does not sound that difficult and 10 hours of rest seems like it should be adequate. In reality flight time only accounts for loggable time in the aircraft (in airliners, the parking brake serves as the aviation equivalent of a time clock).

The new rules do a much better job of eliminating fatigue due to deadhead commuting and excessive duty times. Preflighting, checking weather, waiting for ground stops to expire, briefing, and all other tasks directly associated with preparing to fly an aircraft are limited to no more than 14 hours per day. Unfortunately, traveling to the airport, leaving the airport and checking into hotels all accounts for time that is not yet definable by the FAA.

Confusion abounds in the general public as to how a pilot halfway through a 3 hour flight can fall asleep. While that one flight is only three hours, it may be the second flight that day on the third day of a four day trip away from home. Anyone who works 9 to 14 hours is going to be tired. Anyone who works 9 to 14 hours going back and forth between time zones, sleeping in unfamiliar beds, unable to establish a consistent exercise regimen and not having access to healthy, agreeable foods is going to be even more tired. Now ask that person to stay alert in an environment that is almost custom built to induce sleep for four days in a row. This is the real reason why pilots are tired, make mistakes and fall asleep. When two pilots fall asleep and overfly their destination, or when critical mistakes are made due to fatigue induced cognitive impairment, the last thing that should be looked at is sleep apnea. Is sleep apnea a risk? Absolutely, but in the long list of causal factors it is not anywhere near the top.

The combination of desire to generate profit, maintain public confidence in aviation and ensure pilots are not forced into unhealthy patterns is a difficult river to navigate. The FAA has tried to close a massive loophole in their prior regulations via their current definition of Flight Duty Period. Airlines have historically exploited this oversight and were against changes to the Flight Duty Period limits (see page 112). Currently the issue is that duty time ends once the aircraft is parked, not when the pilot arrives at the hotel (we are assuming the pilot is in the middle of a multiple-day trip and cannot simply go home). It can easily take an hour to go from the cockpit to a hotel room, sometimes more. Assuming the pilot eats immediately, that leaves roughly 30 minutes before they are supposed to be sound asleep in order to take advantage of the “8 hour uninterrupted sleep opportunity”. In the morning, the reverse is in effect as it takes a similar amount of time to get to the airport and check in at the crew room. It is easy to see how the 8 hours of sleep can quickly erode to 6 or less. As a good friend who flies for a major air carrier said, “The new rest rules need to address the fact that we can’t go to sleep while making the first turnoff, nor can we wake up at V1.”

Instead of neck circumference and BMI tests,  there should be demands for better scheduling practices for all air carriers. Require that pilots get up and walk around the cabin for a couple minutes every hour (security rules be damned). Mandate that pilots take a few breaths from their O2 masks whenever they feel tired. Implore the FAA to close the final loophole in the definition of Flight Duty Period. Consolidate preflight tasks or delegate them to a dedicated ground crew much like military does with its crew chiefs. Install better soundproofing insulation in cockpits to reduce noise fatigue and hearing loss. Encourage airlines to create dedicated “pilot apartments” at their bases to eliminate travel time for the crews. Any one of these potential solutions solves multiple major issues facing pilot workplace health, which is the most effective way of mitigating the fatigue issue.

Conclusion

Should obesity screening be conducted? Considering that airline pilots must possess a 1st class medical certificate which can only be obtained after a battery of tests including an EKG, it seems odd that severely obese pilots are just walking around by the thousands. Many aircraft are tough to fit into even for an average sized person, so there’s yet another barrier to the truly obese sitting in the cockpit. But for the sake of argument, let’s say that there is a sizable population of obese pilots. There are far more accurate methods of determining levels of adipose tissue distribution than a distorted height to weight ratio. Aerospace Medical Examiners are certainly intelligent enough to use methods such as caliper skinfold or bioelectric impedance to make the necessary measurements. Then that physician can make recommendations on what the pilot can do to reduce their body fat percentage. Focusing on body fat, not weight, will have a far more effective result on the pilot’s overall health than zeroing in on one potential condition.

Flying aircraft is mentally and physically taxing. Pilots are still just mere mortals who have the same body the rest of us have. It requires food, exercise and sleep or it will not function optimally. To expect them to operate like machines is not realistic. Airlines need to accept this, the FAA has to continue to support this and pilots themselves have to live with this. Until it is determined that fixing the underlying causes is worth the cost, we will continue to see more pilots making fatigue induced errors and overflying destinations while fast asleep.

Suggested Further Reading

Center For Disease Control: “About BMI For Adults
Sept 13, 2011
 
FAA: “New Obstructive Sleep Apnea Policy” ; Fred Tilton MD
November, 2013
 
Mayo Clinic: “Sleep Apnea
July 24, 2011
 
FAA: “Fact Sheet – Pilot Flight Time, Rest and Fatigue
January 27, 2010
 
FAA: “Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements
December 21, 2011
 
The Sleep Foundation: “Sleep Studies
 
National Institutes Of Health: “Neck Circumference And Other Clinical Features In The Diagnosis Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome” ; Robert J.O. Davies, Nabeel J. Ali and John R. Stradling
October 24, 1991
 
NHTSA: “Drowsy Driving And Automobile Crashes” ; Kingman P. Strohl MD, et al
 
International Journal Of Obesity: “Accuracy Of Body Mass Index In Diagnosing Obesity In The Adult General Population”; A. Romero-Corral, et al
February 19, 2008
 
FlightPhysical.com: “Summary Of Pilot Medical Standards
February 26, 2007

I Know Why You Go To Extremes

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Why did I post this awesome song that formed a musical bridge between the decades of the 80s and the 90s? Easy, because the tagline is exactly what many people who workout do without even knowing it. Like an internet message board, life is all about moderation (remind me to quote myself later, I like that one).

With exercise it is very easy to get caught up in THE BEST EVAAARRRRR syndrome that permeates out marketing driven society. Whatever we use has to be the best in our eyes. We also like knowing what the purpose of something is if it requires effort. Otherwise, we’d rather do something with no purpose that requires no effort (Research what myosin is? Why do I have to know that? I could be playing Angry Birds).

Most purchases and commitments we make result in us getting what we wanted fairly quickly. Fast food that takes more than 2 minutes to throw out the drive-thru window is an abomination. We verify instantly that the book we ordered is being shipped and when it will be delivered down to the second (I’ve never seen such neurotic monitoring of packages as I have in the past 5 years. When I was a kid the UPS man would leave a box at the door and that was it). Even buying a car rarely takes more than a day if the consumer did research ahead of time. Significant material changes can take place in one’s life literally in less time than it takes to write about it.

Fitness on the other hand is a long term commitment. It is a slowly changing relationship you have to be patient with and nurture for optimal results. Like relationships between people, there is often an illogical attraction to that which is new, intense and exciting. Boring and repetitive is the relationship that will support your goals, but it’s soooooo boring! Thus, you dump boring for extreme because it is the aforementioned new, intense and exciting. It is only after a month or two of dating a base-jumping-race-car-driving-shark-wrestler that you realize that the very thing that drew you to them is the very thing that is going to make you leave them. Here are two fictional but otherwise realistic examples:

 

There is no science, physics, quantum mechanics, alchemy or sorcery that will make you shed 12% bodyfat and gain 30lbs of muscle in just one week of going to a gym. Your logic tells you every single time you see one of those Ultimate Mass Gain ads in the muscle mags that there is no way that you can end up looking like Johnny Giantarms in 3 weeks. But your imagination, the resident troublemaker in your life, chimes in and says “Dude that is totally doable! The program seems easy enough, you just drink shakes and do a 6 day bodypart split. Nothing but volume sets of forced reps”. So what do you do? You start the program and swear by it. You give sermons at the gym about how well its working for you, how everyone should be doing it and that its the only thing that works, blah, blah, blah. Then week number 3 rolls around…

You’ve lost 2% bodyfat and gained a pound of muscle. Looking in the mirror, you feel that you look pretty similar to who you were 3 weeks ago. You look nothing even remotely like Johnny Giantarms! However your friends all notice a difference. Maybe your shoulders have more definition, or your lats flare out a touch more. You also bench, press and squat more weight than before. Nope, doesn’t count. You wanted to gain 30 lbs and even though you made good progress for someone without any “help”, you’re peeved. Livid, you fire off angry emails to the company complaining that even though the fine print said that the advertised results were not typical, you’ve always been an overachiever and therefore should have had even better results. They politely ignore your rant while you now tell everyone at the gym that the program sucks. Your new muscle messiah is a program that has you eating 7 vegetables a day while doing nothing but 50 rep bodyweight squats and pushups.

 

Maybe your goal wasn’t bulking but “toning up” your butt and thighs. Fearing “fempertrophy” (the immediate and explosive growth of muscle that occurs whenever a female touches a dumbell over 5lbs), you decide to buy $150 worth of “Hollywood Body Double Celebrity Workout” DVDs. And since the DVDs are worthless without the $300 juicer, $25 meal plan notebook, and $49 monthly online subscription to a 24hour virtual trainer, you end up shelling out quite a bit of money before doing your first jumping jack.

Speaking of jumping, boy do you jump in! For the first few weeks, you do the workouts everyday. Then its every other day. Then there’s late work meetings, having friends over or just being tired. By now you’ve done the workouts so many times, you know what the instructor is going to say by heart. At first what was cute and endearing is now enough to send you into a raw juice fueled murderous rage. The peppy, upbeat dance music now grates on your very last nerves and at this very instant, you realize the thrill is gone.

Sure, you lost 4 pounds in a month guzzling juice and staying active. But your body doesn’t look like that model who did the infomercial. What a ripoff! Discouraged, you sell the DVDs on eBay, the juicer sits unused in a hallway closet and the meal plan notebook becomes the most expensive loose leaf binder in your house. And that 24hr virtual trainer got more than a few profanity laden instant messages before you cancelled the service. You cease all physical activities until the next craze hits the market. THAT one will work. It WON’T be like the others.

 

What do all these examples have in common? Extremes of course. Extremes of diving into something that was too much to do. Extremes of thinking that slick advertising was a shortcut for consistent hard work. Extremes of not giving the body a chance to change by believing ridiculous transformation time estimates. And the extreme of changing your entire life to fit around a workout in one fell swoop.

Going to extremes leaves no room for balance in your life. Enthusiasm and energy are not endless resources. Run out of either one and you will become depressed, tired or sick. For the record, there is nothing wrong with workout videos or celebrity endorsed workouts. However you should understand something about the human body: it is not a damned Transformer. If you expect to go from Dwight Schrute to Dwyane Johnson in 2 weeks, you have bigger issues than what any trainer can or should help you with.

So how do you avoid going to extremes? Recognize exercise programs for what they are: a blueprint for a new you. They are not the 15th Commandment and they are not federal law. They are not magic and they are not revolutionary. At best, they are simply new presentations of the same basic functions that our bodies have been doing for eons. Never let the “fun” aspect mask the motions. In both cases, there were verifiable changes but the magnitude was lower than expected, therefore the false assumption was that the programs didn’t work. The mechanics worked even when the novelty wore off.

Find a program that is SUSTAINABLE (that’s the new buzzword that people throw around to make other believe they love the spotted owl and rain forests). In the two examples, the programs were not sustainable for the users. This lead to disillusionment and abandoning of the activity. If a program is designed for last for 3 months, make sure you can handle 6 days a week if that’s what it calls for. Make sure you know how to do an RDL if its in the exercise list. If not, pick a different program that you will stick with. Your goals should drive what program you select for yourself, not how ripped/hot/skinny/popular the trainer/model/child-actor-making-acomeback selling the program is.

 

Next time you see something on tv or in a magazine, I hope you’ll think twice before spontaneously reacting just because it’s the new craze or it’s been proven to cause some elite athlete to do some elite athletic thing even more elitely. All you need to know is if it will work with your goals and personality. Why? Because you know why you went to extremes.

And you aren’t doing that anymore.

Resolutioneer’s Guide To Not Burning Out (original post date 12/21/2012)

They’re coming. The Resolutioneers.

Every year, they show up in droves to the gym to get in shape. And they take no prisoners. They’ll go from machine to machine, throw weights around and run so much that they consider selling their car. And in the space of about 2 months, between 50 and 80 percent of those people will stop exercising…at least until next January

A lot of unnecessary worry, anxiety and poor fitness habits are created during the holiday season. It starts with eating the leftover Halloween candy and finally ends with whatever is ingested on New Year’s Eve. Guilt accompanies every meal as people become acutely aware of every ounce of food they eat. You ate an entire apple pie by yourself, half a turkey in record time and your pants only fit if you hold your breath like a world-class abalone diver. That’s when you swear you’ll never eat another Toblerone again. It’s a new year and you’re going to change everything! No pressure at all right?

It’s actually a lot of pressure. Without knowing what can be expected realistically, many people rush off to the gym on January 2nd hoping to lose 15 pounds in 2 hours. Short of amputation, there is no real way to lose that much weight in that time frame. But invariably I’ll still see people hop off the treadmill to get on the scale, shake their head in disgust and then get back on the treadmill. I actually feel bad for these people because the dedication is there, but due to a lack of knowledge of how the body works, they are squandering their efforts.

Water Weight

Yes, you can sweat out a couple pounds by running in a rubber suit. If you need to weigh in for a wrestling match, this is a perfectly logical solution. For any normal purpose however, this only serves to dehydrate you faster. As soon as the person drinks enough water to replenish what they sweated out, they’ll be back to their old weight. Hence the whole “I can’t believe I just gained it all back!” outburst that follows these types of workouts. I know you’ve heard of “water weight”, and this is a perfect example. Your body is a living, fluid based machine. Your weight fluctuates throughout the day. Even your height varies from hour to hour (you’re taller when you’re asleep as your spine can decompress slightly). So expecting to be exactly 132.7 pounds all the time is about as realistic as expecting a unicorn to be your workout partner. Give yourself a range, say from 130 to 135 pounds, so that normal variances with eating food, drinking fluids and getting rid of the byproducts can be accounted for without causing you to go into a rage when the scale says 133.5.

Time

Sure you can exercise for 4 hours a day. It helps if you are in college full-time where your real world responsibilities are at a minimum, or a professional bodybuilder where sponsors pay you to workout and drink shakes. Regular adults with jobs, spouses, kids, and other grown-up accessories tend to have far less free time for themselves. Truth be told, only 15-30 minutes a day is enough to get started into an exercise program. In fact I highly recommend doing very short workouts in the beginning for a few reasons:

  1. You don’t have to set aside hours each day and won’t be tempted to quit because you can’t find time.
  2. It allows you to ease into a routine gently. Nobody goes from driver’s ed to Rockingham Speedway in one week and nobody goes from sedentary to RGIII in a week either.
  3. The less time you spend working out means less chance of getting injured. Exercise is very safe, but only as safe as you make it. Not reading the instructions on machines (I still do after 16 years of using gyms), copying what some other person is doing, or putting too much strain on your body are all common mistakes that are made in the New Year craze.
  4. When muscle soreness sets in at its worst, usually 48 hours after a particular group is worked, people who are not used to that feeling may assume they injured themselves and give up. And if they made the mistake of working the same parts over and over, being able to move at all will be a miracle.

Gyms

There is nothing wrong with joining a gym but just make sure you are realistic in what you think you’ll be able to sustain. Everyone swears when they sign on the dotted line that they’ll go 5 or 6 days a week and that signing a contract for 2 years at a reduced monthly rate makes sense. But there’s a reason gyms like to get you to sign up for multiple years all at once. If you workout for a week and never step foot in the facility again, they already have your money. It’s up to you to make the most out of your membership. Most gyms offer a variety of services from free classes, to free consults with a nutritionist or trainer, to childcare service. But you have to actually go to the gym in order to take advantage of these perks.

Diets

Diets are for the most part, a temporary change to one’s eating habits. And most are unsustainable. I’ve heard some good ones over the years. “I only eat strawberries and grilled chicken breasts.” or “I drink a weight loss shake with my alfalfa sprout salads”. Seriously, take a look at some of these diets they promote in magazines and tell me how long you can go eating only steamed vegetables, long grain rice and albacore tuna before you go Nicky Santoro on someone? Only education about what calories do once they get in your body and why it’s good to have fat, sodium and even carbohydrates in your daily meals will help eliminate this issue. Contact a local nutritionist to help you understand what advertisements aren’t telling you (food isn’t evil although some ingredients are).

Home Workout Videos

Home workout programs are great to get people motivated, provided they are motivated enough to actually press play. A huge advantage of going to a gym is that you are basically forced to workout. At home, your intentions may be good but there are too many distractions. Your phone rings…the kids stop up the toilet with toys…you start rummaging through the fridge…you decide to take a short break. By the time an hour has gone by you’ve done a grand total of 15 minutes of movement. While the home workouts are a good assist, or a welcome change of pace, you have to meet them halfway. Simply watching other people won’t give you any results.

A happy workout is a productive workout. Eating without vilifying your food not only makes you feel better but reduces stress levels. Do yourself a favor and ease into working out slowly. Get educated in your own body and why what’s recommended is probably not going to work for you without some modifications. Hire a trainer and or a nutritionist to assist you. They don’t like to see people give up after 2 months and will be happy to help make real changes that will last and that you can live with.

There is nothing wrong with turning over a new leaf. Just don’t try to chop down the whole tree at once!

Of Plans, Spines and Running

Some things I plan quite well. Others, not so much. For an example of the latter, take this weekend and the Carrollton Trails 5k. I haven’t run in a timed race for roughly a year, strike one. Strike two is my total lack of endurance training since a 5 minute warmup on the elliptical doesn’t count. Strike three is the worst of all. I decided at the last second to run well after committing to my workout cycle for the month. Squats and deadlifts at 5pm on Friday…race at 8am on Saturday. I’m either an idiot or a masochist.

Everyone lining up for the 8am start.
Everyone lining up for the 8am start.

At 8am sharp the race began with all the fast people up at the front and me somewhere near the front of the rear. Crisp morning air felt wonderful as the mass of people at the starting line started to thin out. The path was slightly downhill and went along one of the greenbelt paths in our town. As a result the scenery was often idyllic with streams, lakes, trees and reeds making our progress. This was a family friendly run which meant that kids and even dogs were welcome to partake. For the record, not one dog passed me.

I should point out that my spine was recently adjusted which eliminated two of my biggest problems in running; discomfort and reduced breathing capacity due to spinal twist. There was no lumbar or knee pain and even with the leg workout less than 24hrs prior, there was no fatigue in the actual muscles. Normally after a mile, I have to stop and stretch lest my lower back reach up and smite me, but not this time. The mile markers fell one by one and there was even enough gas in the tank to light the burners and sprint across the finish line.

If you have problems running, consider having your body alignment checked and corrected. You may assume your body isn’t built to run or lift or whatever but its possible that your parts aren’t lining up correctly. I used to hang from a pullup bar and see my hips and legs twist of their own accord like a tangled telephone cord. All the stretching in the world didn’t help which should have been a sign to think beyond the trainer toolbox (it’s always harder to assess yourself than someone else). Before you know it, you may be setting personal records on foot.

 

Proceeds from the Carrollton Trails 5k go towards building a special needs soccer and baseball field in Carrollton, TX.